Publications

PUBLICATIONS

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HAL : Dernières publications

  • [hal-01594855] Human gut microbes impact host serum metabolome and insulin sensitivity

    Insulin resistance is a forerunner state of ischaemic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Here we show how the human gut microbiome impacts the serum metabolome and associates with insulin resistance in 277 non-diabetic Danish individuals. The serum metabolome of insulin-resistant individuals is characterized by increased levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), which correlate with a gut microbiome that has an enriched biosynthetic potential for BCAAs and is deprived of genes encoding bacterial inward transporters for these amino acids. Prevotella copri and Bacteroides vulgatusare identified as the main species driving the association between biosynthesis of BCAAs and insulin resistance, and in mice we demonstrate that P. copri can induce insulin resistance, aggravate glucose intolerance and augment circulating levels of BCAAs. Our findings suggest that microbial targets may have the potential to diminish insulin resistance and reduce the incidence of common metabolic and cardiovascular disorders.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Helle Krogh Pedersen) 26 Sep 2017

    https://hal.science/hal-01594855
  • [hal-01004521] A metagenomic insight into our gut's microbiome

    Advances in sequencing technology and the development of metagenomic and bioinformatics methods have opened up new ways to investigate the 10(14) microorganisms inhabiting the human gut. The gene composition of human gut microbiome in a large and deeply sequenced cohort highlighted an overall nonredundant genome size 150 times larger than the human genome. The in silico predictions based on metagenomic sequencing are now actively followed, compared and challenged using additional 'omics' technologies. Interactions between the microbiota and its host are of key interest in several pathologies and applying metaomics to describe the human gut microbiome will give a better understanding of this crucial crosstalk at mucosal interfaces. Adding to the growing appreciation of the importance of the microbiome is the discovery that numerous phages, that is, viruses of prokaryotes infecting bacteria (bacteriophages) or archaea with a high host specificity, inhabit the human gut and impact microbial activity. In addition, gene exchanges within the gut microbiota have proved to be more frequent than anticipated. Taken together, these innovative exploratory technologies are expected to unravel new information networks critical for gut homeostasis and human health. Among the challenges faced, the in vivo validation of these networks, together with their integration into the prediction and prognosis of disease, may require further working hypothesis and collaborative efforts.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Patricia Lepage) 11 Jun 2014

    https://hal.science/hal-01004521
  • [hal-01190602] Richness of human gut microbiome correlates with metabolic markers

    We are facing a global metabolic health crisis provoked by an obesity epidemic. Here we report the human gut microbial composition in a population sample of 123 non-obese and 169 obese Danish individuals. We find two groups of individuals that differ by the number of gut microbial genes and thus gut bacterial richness. They contain known and previously unknown bacterial species at different proportions; individuals with a low bacterial richness (23% of the population) are characterized by more marked overall adiposity, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia and a more pronounced inflammatory phenotype when compared with high bacterial richness individuals. The obese individuals among the lower bacterial richness group also gain more weight over time. Only a few bacterial species are sufficient to distinguish between individuals with high and low bacterial richness, and even between lean and obese participants. Our classifications based on variation in the gut microbiome identify subsets of individuals in the general white adult population who may be at increased risk of progressing to adiposity-associated co-morbidities.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Emmanuelle Le Chatelier) 18 Mar 2024

    https://hal.science/hal-01190602
  • [cea-00908974] A human gut microbial gene catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing

    To understand the impact of gut microbes on human health and well-being it is crucial to assess their genetic potential. Here we describe the Illumina-based metagenomic sequencing, assembly and characterization of 3.3 million non-redundant microbial genes, derived from 576.7 gigabases of sequence, from faecal samples of 124 European individuals. The gene set, ~150 times larger than the human gene complement, contains an overwhelming majority of the prevalent (more frequent) microbial genes of the cohort and probably includes a large proportion of the prevalent human intestinal microbial genes. The genes are largely shared among individuals of the cohort. Over 99% of the genes are bacterial, indicating that the entire cohort harbours between 1,000 and 1,150 prevalent bacterial species and each individual at least 160 such species, which are also largely shared. We define and describe the minimal gut metagenome and the minimal gut bacterial genome in terms of functions present in all individuals and most bacteria, respectively

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Junjie Qin) 16 Oct 2019

    https://cea.hal.science/cea-00908974
  • [hal-01535324] Disentangling type 2 diabetes and metformin treatment signatures in the human gut microbiota

    In recent years, several associations between common chronic human disorders and altered gut microbiome composition and function have been reported(1,2). In most of these reports, treatment regimens were not controlled for and conclusions could thus be confounded by the effects of various drugs on the microbiota, which may obscure microbial causes, protective factors or diagnostically relevant signals. Our study addresses disease and drug signatures in the human gut microbiome of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Two previous quantitative gut metagenomics studies of T2D patients that were unstratified for treatment yielded divergent conclusions regarding its associated gut microbial dysbiosis(3,4). Here we show, using 784 available human gut metagenomes, how antidiabetic medication confounds these results, and analyse in detail the effects of the most widely used antidiabetic drug metformin. We provide support for microbial mediation of the therapeutic effects of metformin through short-chain fatty acid production, as well as for potential microbiota-mediated mechanisms behind known intestinal adverse effects in the form of a relative increase in abundance of Escherichia species. Controlling for metformin treatment, we report a unified signature of gut microbiome shifts in T2D with a depletion of butyrate-producing taxa(3,4). These in turn cause functional microbiome shifts, in part alleviated by metformin-induced changes. Overall, the present study emphasizes the need to disentangle gut microbiota signatures of specific human diseases from those of medication.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Kristoffer Forslund) 08 Jun 2017

    https://hal.science/hal-01535324
  • [hal-02625422] Fermented meats (and the symptomatic case of the Flemish food pyramid): Are we heading towards the vilification of a valuable food group?

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    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Frédéric Leroy) 26 May 2020

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02625422
  • [hal-01195477] Identification and assembly of genomes and genetic elements in complex metagenomic samples without using reference genomes

    Most current approaches for analyzing metagenomic data rely on comparisons to reference genomes, but the microbial diversity of many environments extends far beyond what is covered by reference databases. De novo segregation of complex metagenomic data into specific biological entities, such as particular bacterial strains or viruses, remains a largely unsolved problem. Here we present a method, based on binning co-abundant genes across a series of metagenomic samples, that enables comprehensive discovery of new microbial organisms, viruses and co-inherited genetic entities and aids assembly of microbial genomes without the need for reference sequences. We demonstrate the method on data from 396 human gut microbiome samples and identify 7,381 co-abundance gene groups (CAGs), including 741 metagenomic species (MGS). We use these to assemble 238 high-quality microbial genomes and identify affiliations between MGS and hundreds of viruses or genetic entities. Our method provides the means for comprehensive profiling of the diversity within complex metagenomic samples.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (H Bjørn Nielsen) 07 Sep 2015

    https://hal.science/hal-01195477
  • [hal-01204262] A metagenome-wide association study of gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes

    Assessment and characterization of gut microbiota has become a major research area in human disease, including type 2 diabetes, the most prevalent endocrine disease worldwide. To carry out analysis on gut microbial content in patients with type 2 diabetes, we developed a protocol for a metagenome-wide association study (MGWAS) and undertook a two-stage MGWAS based on deep shotgun sequencing of the gut microbial DNA from 345 Chinese individuals. We identified and validated approximately 60,000 type-2-diabetes-associated markers and established the concept of a metagenomic linkage group, enabling taxonomic species-level analyses. MGWAS analysis showed that patients with type 2 diabetes were characterized by a moderate degree of gut microbial dysbiosis, a decrease in the abundance of some universal butyrate-producing bacteria and an increase in various opportunistic pathogens, as well as an enrichment of other microbial functions conferring sulphate reduction and oxidative stress resistance. An analysis of 23 additional individuals demonstrated that these gut microbial markers might be useful for classifying type 2 diabetes.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Junjie Qin) 23 Sep 2015

    https://hal.science/hal-01204262
  • [hal-04314336] Extending the Bacillus cereus group genomics to putative food-borne pathogens of different toxicity

    The Bacillus cereus group represents sporulating soil bacteria containing pathogenic strains which may cause diarrheic or emetic food poisoning outbreaks. Multiple locus sequence typing revealed a presence in natural samples of these bacteria of about 30 clonal complexes. Application of genomic methods to this group was however biased due to the major interest for representatives closely related to Bacillus anthracis. Albeit the most important food-borne pathogens were not yet defined, existing data indicate that they are scattered all over the phylogenetic tree. The preliminary analysis of the sequences of three genomes discussed in this paper narrows down the gaps in our knowledge of the B. cereus group. The strain NVH391-98 is a rare but particularly severe food-borne pathogen. Sequencing revealed that the strain should be a representative of a novel bacterial species, for which the name Bacillus cytotoxis or Bacillus cytotoxicus is proposed. This strain has a reduced genome size compared to other B. cereus group strains. Genome analysis revealed absence of sigma B factor and the presence of genes encoding diarrheic Nhe toxin, not detected earlier. The strain B. cereus F837/76 represents a clonal complex close to that of B. anthracis. Including F837/76, three such B. cereus strains had been sequenced. Alignment of genomes suggests that B. anthracis is their common ancestor. Since such strains often emerge from clinical cases, they merit a special attention. The third strain, KBAB4, is a typical facultative psychrophile generally found in soil. Phylogenic studies show that in nature it is the most active group in terms of gene exchange. Genomic sequence revealed high presence of extra-chromosomal genetic material (about 530kb) that may account for this phenomenon. Genes coding Nhe-like toxin were found on a big plasmid in this strain. This may indicate a potential mechanism of toxicity spread from the psychrophile strain community. The results of this genomic work and ecological compartments of different strains incite to consider a necessity of creating prophylactic vaccines against bacteria closely related to NVH391-98 and F837/76. Presumably developing of such vaccines can be based on the properties of non-pathogenic strains such as KBAB4 or ATCC14579 reported here or earlier. By comparing the protein coding genes of strains being sequenced in this project to others we estimate the shared proteome, or core genome, in the B. cereus group to be 3000+/-200 genes and the total proteome, or pan-genome, to be 20-25,000 genes.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Alla Lapidus) 29 Nov 2023

    https://hal.science/hal-04314336
  • [hal-03695316] The activities of several detoxication enzymes are differentially induced by juices of garden cress, water cress and mustard in human HepG2 cells

    It has been previously demonstrated in a human-derived hepatoma cell line (HepG2) that juices from cruciferous vegetables protect against the genotoxicity caused by dietary carcinogens. HepG2 cells possess different enzymes involved in the biotransformation of xenobiotics. Therefore, we investigated the effect of cruciferous juices on the activities of CYP 1A and several phase II enzymes in this cell model. For each experiment, 1 x 10(6) cells were seeded on Petri dishes. After 2 days, the juices (0.5-8 microl/ml of culture medium) were added for 48 h prior to cell harvesting. The addition of juice from water cress (Nasturtium officinalis R. Br) significantly increased the activities of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase at high doses only and NAD(P)H-quinone reductase in a dose-dependent manner (1.8- and 5-fold, respectively). The addition of juice from garden cress (Lepidum sativum L.) significantly increased the activities of NAD(P)H-quinone reductase and UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase with a maximal effect around the dose of 2 microl/ml juice (1.4- and 1.2-fold, respectively) while the other enzymes were not altered. Mustard (Sinapis alba L.) juice increased the activities of NAD(P)H-quinone reductase (2.6-fold at the dose of 8 microl/ml), and N-acetyl-transferase (1.4-fold at the dose of 8 microl/ml) in a dose-dependent manner while a maximal induction of UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase was obtained with a dose of 2 microl/ml (1.8-fold). These observations show that the three juices have different induction profiles: only water cress acted as a bifunctional inducer by enhancing both phase I and phase II enzymes. As a consequence, each juice may preferentially inhibit the genotoxicity of specific compounds.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (E.F. Lhoste) 14 Jun 2022

    https://hal.science/hal-03695316
  • [hal-02790439] Avis de l'Anses relatif à l’actualisation des repères alimentaires du PNNS pour les enfants de 4 à 17 ans

    Les bases scientifiques nécessaires à l’établissement des repères alimentaires du Programme National Nutrition Santé (PNNS) ont été actualisées par l’Anses en 2016 pour la population générale adulte sur la base des nouvelles références nutritionnelles et des données actuelles de consommation et de composition des aliment (Anses 2016d). Ces repères concernant la population générale, hommes et femmes adultes hors populations particulières, le Directeur général de la santé a saisi l’Anses le 12 juillet 2016 afin que des repères soient également énoncés pour les populations spécifiques que constituent les femmes enceintes et allaitantes, les enfants et adolescents et les personnes âgées et les femmes ménopausées. Le présent avis concerne la population spécifique des enfants âgés de 4 à 17 ans.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (François Mariotti) 16 May 2024

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02790439
  • [hal-01204369] Nickel import in bacteria, structural study of extracytoplasmic nickel-binding proteins

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    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Hugo Lebrette) 23 Sep 2015

    https://hal.science/hal-01204369
  • [hal-01084825] Promiscuous Nickel Import in Human Pathogens: Structure, Thermodynamics, and Evolution of Extracytoplasmic Nickel-Binding Proteins

    In human pathogenic bacteria, nickel is required for the activation of two enzymes, urease and [NiFe]-hydrogenase, necessary for host infection. Acquisition of Ni(II) is mediated by either permeases or ABC-importers, the latter including a subclass that involves an extracytoplasmic nickel-binding protein, Ni-BP. This study reports on the structure of three Ni-BPs from a diversity of human pathogens and on the existence of three new nickel-binding motifs. These are different from that previously described for Escherichia coli Ni-BP NikA, known to bind nickel via a nickelophore, and indicate a variegated ligand selectivity for Ni-BPs. The structures are consistent with ligand affinities measured in solution by calorimetry and challenge the hypothesis of a general requirement of nickelophores for nickel uptake by canonical ABC importers. Phylogenetic analyses showed that Ni-BPs have different evolutionary origins and emerged independently from peptide-binding proteins, possibly explaining the promiscuous behavior of this class of Ni(II) carriers.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Hugo Lebrette) 20 Nov 2014

    https://hal.science/hal-01084825
  • [hal-03277134] RocS drives chromosome segregation and nucleoid protection in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Chromosome segregation in bacteria is poorly understood outside some prominent model strains(1-5) and even less is known about how it is coordinated with other cellular processes. This is the case for the opportunistic human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus)(6), which lacks the Min and the nucleoid occlusion systems(7), and possesses only an incomplete chromosome partitioning Par(A)BS system, in which ParA is absent(8). The bacterial tyrosine kinase(9) CpsD, which is required for capsule production, was previously found to interfere with chromosome segregation(10). Here, we identify a protein of unknown function that interacts with CpsD and drives chromosome segregation. RocS (Regulator of Chromosome Segregation) is a membrane-bound protein that interacts with both DNA and the chromosome partitioning protein ParB to properly segregate the origin of replication region to new daughter cells. In addition, we show that RocS interacts with the cell division protein FtsZ and hinders cell division. Altogether, this work reveals that RocS is the cornerstone of a nucleoid protection system ensuring proper chromosome segregation and cell division in coordination with the biogenesis of the protective capsular layer.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Chryslène Mercy) 02 Jul 2021

    https://hal.science/hal-03277134
  • [hal-00749819] Structure, biosynthesis, and properties of kurstakins, nonribosomal lipopeptides from Bacillus spp.

    A new family of lipopeptides produced by Bacillus thuringiensis, the kurstakins, was discovered in 2000 and considered as a biomarker of this species. Kurstakins are lipoheptapeptides displaying antifungal activities against Stachybotrys charatum. Recently, the biosynthesis mechanism, the regulation of this biosynthesis and the potential new properties of kurstakins were described in the literature. In addition, kurstakins were also detected in other species belonging to Bacillus genus such as Bacillus cereus. This mini-review gathers all the information about these promising bioactive molecules.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Max Béchet) 08 Nov 2012

    https://hal.science/hal-00749819
  • [hal-03545888] Reaching Agreement in Competitive Microbial Systems

    In this work, we consider distributed agreement tasks in microbial distributed systems under stochastic population dynamics and competitive interactions. We examine how competitive exclusion can be used to solve distributed agreement tasks in the microbial setting. To this end, we develop a new technique for analyzing the time to reach competitive exclusion in systems with several competing species under biologically realistic population dynamics. We use this technique to analyze a protocol that exploits competitive interactions to solve approximate majority consensus efficiently in synthetic microbial systems. We show that direct competition dynamics reach majority consensus with high probability when the initial gap between the species is small, i.e., Ω(√ n log n), where n is the initial population size of the majority species. In contrast, we show that indirect competition alone is not efficient: for example, solving majority consensus with high probability requires an initial gap of Ω(n). To corroborate our analytical results, we use computer simulations to show that these consensus dynamics occur within practical time scales.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Victoria Andaur) 27 Jan 2022

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-03545888
  • [hal-03670575] A synthetic communication system uncovers extracellular immunity that self-limits bacteriophage transmission

    Understanding how delivery and exchange of genetic information by bacteriophages shapes bacterial populations is important for designing applications for phage therapy, biocontrol, and microbiome engineering. Here, we present a synthetic intercellular communication system that repurposes phage M13 for genetic exchange between Escherichia coli cells and build mathematical models of the communication behaviour. Our models, based on Chemical Reaction Networks, capture the growth burden, cell density, and growth phase dependence of phage secretion and infection kinetics and predict the stochasticity characterising phage-bacterial interactions at low numbers. In co-cultures of phage sender and receiver cells, resource sharing and selection pressure determine the choice of horizontal versus vertical phage transmission. Surprisingly, we discover that a phage-encoded immunity factor confers extracellular protection to uninfected bacteria, reducing infection rates by 70%. In a simulated gut environment, this novel “self-jamming” mechanism enables the phage to farm uninfected bacteria for future infections, increasing the overall success of both M13 and E. coli. The synthetic system developed here lays the groundwork for implementing population level controls in engineered bacterial communities, using phage signals for communication.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Amit Pathania) 10 Aug 2022

    https://hal.science/hal-03670575v2
  • [hal-03519002] Distributed computation with continual population growth

    Computing via synthetically engineered bacteria is a vibrant and active field with numerous applications in bio-production, bio-sensing, and medicine. Motivated by the lack of robustness and by resource limitation inside single cells, distributed approaches with communication among bacteria have recently gained in interest. In this paper, we focus on the problem of population growth happening concurrently, and possibly interfering, with the desired bio-computation. Specifically, we present a fast protocol in systems with continuous population growth for the majority consensus problem and prove that it correctly identifies the initial majority among two inputs with high probability if the initial difference is $\Omega( \sqrt{n \log n})$ where $n$ is the total initial population. We also present a fast protocol that correctly computes the Nand of two inputs with high probability. By combining Nand gates with the majority consensus protocol as an amplifier, it is possible to compute arbitrary Boolean functions. Finally, we extend the protocols to several biologically relevant settings. We simulate a plausible implementation of a noisy Nand gate with engineered bacteria. In the context of continuous cultures with a constant outflow and a constant inflow of fresh media, we demonstrate that majority consensus is achieved only if the flow is slower than the maximum growth rate. Simulations suggest that flow increases consensus time over a wide parameter range. The proposed protocols help set the stage for bio-engineered distributed computation that directly addresses continuous stochastic population growth.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Da-Jung Cho) 10 Jan 2022

    https://inria.hal.science/hal-03519002
  • [hal-02946883] Distributed Computation with Continual Population Growth

    Computing with synthetically engineered bacteria is a vibrant and active field with numerous applications in bio-production, bio-sensing, and medicine. Motivated by the lack of robustness and by resource limitation inside single cells, distributed approaches with communication among bacteria have recently gained in interest. In this paper, we focus on the problem of population growth happening concurrently, and possibly interfering, with the desired bio-computation. Specifically, we present a fast protocol in systems with continuous population growth for the majority consensus problem and prove that it correctly identifies the initial majority among two inputs with high probability if the initial difference is Ω(√ n log n) where n is the total initial population. We also present a fast protocol that correctly computes the NAND of two inputs with high probability. We demonstrate that combining the NAND gate protocol with the continuous-growth majority consensus protocol, using the latter as an amplifier, it is possible to implement circuits computing arbitrary Boolean functions. 2012 ACM Subject Classification Theory of computation → Distributed algorithms

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Da-Jung Cho) 23 Sep 2020

    https://hal.science/hal-02946883
  • [hal-02549707] Digital Circuit Design for Biological and Silicon Computers

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    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Matthias Függer) 21 Apr 2020

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02549707
  • [hal-03109210] Systemic short chain fatty acids limit antitumor effect of CTLA-4 blockade in hosts with cancer

    Gut microbiota composition influences the clinical benefit of immune checkpoints in patients with advanced cancer but mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. Molecular mechanism whereby gut microbiota influences immune responses is mainly assigned to gut microbial metabolites. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are produced in large amounts in the colon through bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber. We evaluate in mice and in patients treated with anti-CTLA-4 blocking mAbs whether SCFA levels is related to clinical outcome. High blood butyrate and propionate levels are associated with resistance to CTLA-4 blockade and higher proportion of Treg cells. In mice, butyrate restrains anti-CTLA-4-induced up-regulation of CD80/CD86 on dendritic cells and ICOS on T cells, accumulation of tumor-specific T cells and memory T cells. In patients, high blood butyrate levels moderate ipilimumab-induced accumulation of memory and ICOS + CD4 + T cells and IL-2 impregnation. Altogether, these results suggest that SCFA limits anti-CTLA-4 activity.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Clélia Coutzac) 07 Jun 2023

    https://hal.science/hal-03109210
  • [hal-00636313] The cyst-dividing bacterium Ramlibacter tataouinensis TTB310 genome reveals a well-stocked toolbox for adaptation to a desert environment.

    Ramlibacter tataouinensis TTB310(T) (strain TTB310), a betaproteobacterium isolated from a semi-arid region of South Tunisia (Tataouine), is characterized by the presence of both spherical and rod-shaped cells in pure culture. Cell division of strain TTB310 occurs by the binary fission of spherical "cyst-like" cells ("cyst-cyst" division). The rod-shaped cells formed at the periphery of a colony (consisting mainly of cysts) are highly motile and colonize a new environment, where they form a new colony by reversion to cyst-like cells. This unique cell cycle of strain TTB310, with desiccation tolerant cyst-like cells capable of division and desiccation sensitive motile rods capable of dissemination, appears to be a novel adaptation for life in a hot and dry desert environment. In order to gain insights into strain TTB310's underlying genetic repertoire and possible mechanisms responsible for its unusual lifestyle, the genome of strain TTB310 was completely sequenced and subsequently annotated. The complete genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 4,070,194 bp with an average G+C content of 70.0%, the highest among the Betaproteobacteria sequenced to date, with total of 3,899 predicted coding sequences covering 92% of the genome. We found that strain TTB310 has developed a highly complex network of two-component systems, which may utilize responses to light and perhaps a rudimentary circadian hourglass to anticipate water availability at the dew time in the middle/end of the desert winter nights and thus direct the growth window to cyclic water availability times. Other interesting features of the strain TTB310 genome that appear to be important for desiccation tolerance, including intermediary metabolism compounds such as trehalose or polyhydroxyalkanoate, and signal transduction pathways, are presented and discussed.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Gilles de Luca) 27 Apr 2012

    https://hal.science/hal-00636313
  • [hal-03352896] Blockage of bacterial FimH prevents mucosal inflammation associated with Crohn’s disease

    Background An Escherichia coli (E. coli) pathotype with invasive properties, first reported by Darfeuille-Michaud and termed adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC), was shown to be prevalent in up to half the individuals with Crohn’s Disease (CD), suggesting that these bacteria could be involved in the pathophysiology of CD. Among the genes related to AIEC pathogenicity, fim has the potential to generate an inflammatory reaction from the intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages, as it interacts with TLR4, inducing the production of inflammatory cytokines independently of LPS. Therefore, targeting the bacterial adhesion of FimH-expressing bacteria seems a promising therapeutic approach, consisting of disarming bacteria without killing them, representing a selective strategy to suppress a potentially critical trigger of intestinal inflammation, without disturbing the intestinal microbiota. Results We analyzed the metagenomic composition of the gut microbiome of 358 patients with CD from two different cohorts and characterized the presence of FimH-expressing bacteria. To assess the pathogenic role of FimH, we used human intestinal explants and tested a specific FimH blocker to prevent bacterial adhesion and associated inflammation. We observed a significant and disease activity-dependent enrichment of Enterobacteriaceae in the gut microbiome of patients with CD. Bacterial FimH expression was functionally confirmed in ileal biopsies from 65% of the patients with CD. Using human intestinal explants, we further show that FimH is essential for adhesion and to trigger inflammation. Finally, a specific FimH-blocker, TAK-018, inhibits bacterial adhesion to the intestinal epithelium and prevents inflammation, thus preserving mucosal integrity. Conclusions We propose that TAK-018, which is safe and well tolerated in humans, is a promising candidate for the treatment of CD and in particular in preventing its recurrence.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Grégoire Chevalier) 23 Sep 2021

    https://hal.sorbonne-universite.fr/hal-03352896
  • [hal-02366353] Gliding Arc Discharge in the Potato Pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica: Mechanism of Lethal Action and Effect on Membrane-Associated Molecules

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    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (M. Moreau) 15 Nov 2019

    https://normandie-univ.hal.science/hal-02366353
  • [hal-04565183] Bone mineral density at extremely low weight in patients with anorexia nervosa

    Abstract Objective Low bone mineral density (BMD) is a frequent and invalidating consequence of chronic undernourishment in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of this study was to assess prevalence and clinic‐biological correlates of low BMD and fractures in extremely undernourished inpatients with AN. Design Retrospective cohort study. Patients and measurements This study included 97 extremely malnourished female inpatients with AN consecutively admitted over 2 years. Clinical‐biological variables, history of fractures and BMD by dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry (DXA) were examined to find predictors of low BMD and fractures. Results The prevalence of low BMD was of 51% for lumbar spine and 38% for femoral neck. Z‐scores were lower at lumbar spine (−2.2 ± 1.2 SD) than at femoral neck (−1.9 ± 0.9 SD) ( P <.01). Fragility fractures were reported by 10% of patients. BMD was mainly predicted by FFM, illness duration, age at onset and restricting AN ( P <.05). Fractures were predicted by sodium concentrations, femoral neck Z‐score and illness duration ( P <.03). Conclusion Extremely severe patients with AN have high prevalence of low BMD, predicted by severity and chronicity of malnutrition.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Pauline Bemer) 01 May 2024

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-04565183
  • [hal-04578344] Illuminating the biofilm lifecycle: imaging and molecular insights with Bacillus subtilis NDmed

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    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Romain Briandet) 16 May 2024

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-04578344
  • [hal-02941029] Sulfiredoxin Protects Mice from Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Endotoxic Shock

    Peroxiredoxins constitute a major family of cysteine-based peroxide-scavenging enzymes. They carry an intriguing redox switch by undergoing substrate-mediated inactivation via overoxidation of their catalytic cysteine to the sulfinic acid form that is reverted by reduction catalyzed by the sulfinic acid reductase sulfiredoxin (Srx). The biological significance of such inactivation is not understood, nor is the function of Srx1. To address this question, we generated a mouse line with a null deletion of the Srx1-encoding Srxn1 gene. We show here that Srxn1(-/-) mice are perfectly viable and do not suffer from any apparent defects under laboratory conditions, but have an abnormal response to lipopolysaccharide that manifests by increased mortality during endotoxic shock. Microarray-based mRNA profiles show that although the response of Srxn1(-/-) mice to lipopolysaccharide is typical, spanning all spectrum and all pathways of innate immunity, it is delayed by several hours and remains intense when the response of Srxn1(+/+) mice has already dissipated. These data indicate that Srx1 activity protects mice from the lethality of endotoxic shock, adding this enzyme to other host factors, as NRF2 and peroxiredoxin 2, which by regulating cellular reactive oxygen species levels act as important modifiers in the pathogenesis of sepsis.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Anne-Gaëlle Planson) 16 Sep 2020

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02941029
  • [hal-04214482] Adlercreutzia equolifaciens Is an Anti-Inflammatory Commensal Bacterium with Decreased Abundance in Gut Microbiota of Patients with Metabolic Liver Disease

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects about 20–40% of the adult population in high-income countries and is now a leading indication for liver transplantation and can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma. The link between gut microbiota dysbiosis and NAFLD is now clearly established. Through analyses of the gut microbiota with shotgun metagenomics, we observe that compared to healthy controls, Adlercreutzia equolifaciens is depleted in patients with liver diseases such as NAFLD. Its abundance also decreases as the disease progresses and eventually disappears in the last stages indicating a strong association with disease severity. Moreover, we show that A. equolifaciens possesses anti-inflammatory properties, both in vitro and in vivo in a humanized mouse model of NAFLD. Therefore, our results demonstrate a link between NAFLD and the severity of liver disease and the presence of A. equolifaciens and its anti-inflammatory actions. Counterbalancing dysbiosis with this bacterium may be a promising live biotherapeutic strategy for liver diseases.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Florian Plaza Oñate) 13 Feb 2024

    https://univ-angers.hal.science/hal-04214482
  • [hal-02617842] Differentiation of vegetative cells into spores: a kinetic model applied to <em>bacillus subtilis</em>

    Spore-forming bacteria are natural contaminants of food raw materials, and sporulation can occur in many environments from farm to fork. In order to characterize and to predict spore formation over time, we developed a model that describes both the kinetics of growth and the differentiation of vegetative cells into spores. The model is based on a classical growth model and enables description of the kinetics of sporulation with the addition of three parameters specific to sporulation. Two parameters are related to the probability of each vegetative cell to commit to sporulation and to form a spore, and the last one is related to the time needed to form a spore once the cell is committed to sporulation. The goodness of fit of this growth-sporulation model was assessed using growth-sporulation kinetics at various temperatures in laboratory medium or in whey for Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus licheniformis. The model accurately describes the kinetics in these different conditions, with a mean error lower than 0.78 log(10) CFU/ml for the growth and 1.08 log(10) CFU/ml for the sporulation. The biological meaning of the parameters was validated with a derivative strain of Bacillus subtilis 168 which produces green fluorescent protein at the initiation of sporulation. This model provides physiological information on the spore formation and on the temporal abilities of vegetative cells to differentiate into spores and reveals the heterogeneity of spore formation during and after growth. IMPORTANCE The growth-sporulation model describes the progressive transition from vegetative cells to spores with sporulation parameters describing the sporulation potential of each vegetative cell. Consequently, the model constitutes an interesting tool to assess the sporulation potential of a bacterial population over time with accurate parameters such as the time needed to obtain one resistant spore and the probability of sporulation. Further, this model can be used to assess these data under various environmental conditions in order to better identify the conditions favorable for sporulation regarding the time to obtain the first spore and/or the concentrations of spores which could be reached during a food process.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Emilie Gauvry) 25 May 2020

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02617842
  • [hal-04575931] Prebiotics supplementation during pregnancy leads to the transmission of microbial and immune factors from mother to child, preventing from food allergy

    [...]

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Brosseau C.) 15 May 2024

    https://hal.science/hal-04575931
  • [hal-04144836] Neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio predicts short-term outcome of COVID-19 in haemodialysis patients

    Abstract Background Information regarding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in haemodialysis (HD) patients is limited and early studies suggest a poor outcome. We aimed to identify clinical and biological markers associated with severe forms of COVID-19 in HD patients. Methods We conducted a prospective, observational and multicentric study. Sixty-two consecutive adult HD patients with confirmed COVID-19 from four dialysis facilities in Paris, France, from 19 March to 19 May 2020 were included. Blood tests were performed before diagnosis and at Days 7 and 14 after diagnosis. Severe forms of COVID-19 were defined as requiring oxygen therapy, admission in an intensive care unit or death. Cox regression models were used to compute adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs). Kaplan–Meier curves and log-rank tests were used for survival analysis. Results Twenty-eight patients (45%) displayed severe forms of COVID-19. Compared with non-severe forms, these patients had more fever (93% versus 56%, P &amp;lt; 0.01), cough (71% versus 38%, P = 0.02) and dyspnoea (43% versus 6%, P &amp;lt; 0.01) at diagnosis. At Day 7 post-diagnosis, neutrophil counts, neutrophil:lymphocyte (N:L) ratio, C-reactive protein, ferritin, fibrinogen and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly higher in severe COVID-19 patients. Multivariate analysis revealed an N:L ratio &amp;gt;3.7 was the major marker associated with severe forms, with an aHR of 4.28 (95% confidence interval 1.52–12.0; P = 0.006). After a median follow-up time of 48 days (range 27–61), six patients with severe forms died (10%). Conclusions HD patients are at increased risk of severe forms of COVID-19. An elevated N:L ratio at Day 7 was highly associated with the severe forms. Assessing the N:L ratio could inform clinicians for early treatment decisions.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Prisca Mutinelli-Szymanski) 28 Jun 2023

    https://hal.science/hal-04144836
  • [hal-02789394] Avis en réponse à la saisine HCB - dossier 2018-150. Paris, le 24 octobre 2018

    [...]

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (. Comité Scientifique Du Haut Conseil Des Biotechnologies) 05 Jun 2020

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02789394
  • [hal-02917605] Avis en réponse à la saisine HCB - dossier NL-2005-23. Paris, le 21 octobre 2015

    Le Haut Conseil des biotechnologies (HCB) a été saisi le 17 juillet 2015 par les autorités compétentes françaises (le ministère de l’Agriculture, de l’Agroalimentaire et de la Forêt) d’une demande d’avis relative au dossier EFSA-GMO-NL-2005-23 de demande d’autorisation de mise sur le marché du maïs génétiquement modifié 59122 pour la culture, l’importation, la transformation, l’alimentation humaine et animale. Ce dossier a été déposé conjointement par les sociétés Pioneer Hi-Bred International et Mycogen Seeds c/o Dow AgroSciences LLC sur le fondement du règlement (CE) n°1829/2003 auprès de l’Autorité européenne de sécurité des aliments via les autorités compétentes néerlandaises, sous la référence EFSA-GMO-NL-2005-23. Par cette saisine, les autorités compétentes françaises consultent le HCB au stade ultime de la préparation au vote des Etats membres à la Commission européenne. Le Comité scientifique (CS)2 du HCB a examiné le dossier en séance du 24 septembre 2015 sous la présidence de Jean-Christophe Pagès. Le présent avis a été adopté par voie électronique le 21 octobre 2015 et publié le 2 décembre 2015.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (. Comité Scientifique Du Haut Conseil Des Biotechnologies) 19 Aug 2020

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02917605
  • [hal-02797665] Comité scientifique avis en réponse à la saisine HCB – dossier BE-2011-981. Paris, le 12 novembre 2015

    Le Haut Conseil des biotechnologies (HCB) a été saisi le 5 novembre 2015 par les autorités compétentes françaises (le ministère de l’Agriculture, de l’Agroalimentaire et de la Forêt) d’une demande d’avis relative au dossier EFSA-GMO-BE-2011-98 de demande d’autorisation de mise sur le marché du soja génétiquement modifié FG72 pour l’importation, la transformation et l’alimentation humaine et animale. Ce dossier a été déposé conjointement par les sociétés Bayer CropScience AG et M.S. Technologies LLC sur le fondement du règlement (CE) n°1829/2003 auprès des autorités compétentes belges. Par cette saisine, les autorités compétentes françaises consultent le HCB au stade ultime de la préparation au vote des Etats membres à la Commission européenne. Le Comité scientifique (CS)2 du HCB a examiné le dossier par voie électronique sous la présidence de Jean-Christophe Pagès. Le présent avis a été adopté par voie électronique le 12 novembre 2015 et publié le 13 novembre 2015.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Claude Bagnis) 05 Jun 2020

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02797665
  • [hal-02791518] Avis sur les nouvelles techniques d’obtention de plantes (New plant breeding techniques-NPBT)

    Le sigle NPBT désigne un ensemble hétérogène de techniques utilisables dans le cadre de l’obtention de variétés végétales. une question centrale, aujourd’hui débattue dans l’union européenne, concerne le cadre réglementaire d’utilisation de ces techniques. dans ce contexte se posent de multiples questions relatives à l’évaluation sanitaire et environnementale des plantes issues de NPBT , mais aussi à leur détection, leur traçabilité, et leur éventuel étiquetage. le comité scientifique (CS) du HCB a rédigé le présent avis en s’appuyant sur le rapport d’un groupe de travail et sur les discussions menées lors de quatre séances plénières. Le cs avait pour mandat en réponse à une saisine des ministres en charges de l’environnement et de l’agriculture de se prononcer sur : • les méthodes d'analyse et de traçabilité des plantes et des produits issus des NPBT ; • en lien avec le point précédent, les enjeux pour la coexistence des filières ; • les risques directs pour la santé et l'environnement liés aux caractéristiques nouvelles des plantes et des produits obtenus ; • les mesures de gestion à mettre en place pour prévenir et limiter les risques pour la santé et l'environnement liés à l'utilisation des plantes et des produits issus de ces nouvelles techniques, si de tels risques étaient mis en évidence ; • des propositions de pistes intermédiaires entre les dispositions du catalogue européen et celles de la directive 2001/18/CE, qui paraîtraient utiles pour encadrer l'usage de ces nouvelles techniques sur le territoire européen.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Frédérique Angevin) 05 Jun 2020

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02791518
  • [hal-02917782] Commentaires sur le rapport de surveillance de culture du MON 810 en 2017. Paris, le 23 décembre 2019

    Les analyses contenues dans le rapport de surveillance de Monsanto ne font apparaître aucun problème majeur associé à la culture de maïs MON 810 en 2017. Cependant, le Comité scientifique (CS) du Haut Conseil des biotechnologies (HCB) a identifié une erreur significative d’analyse statistique remettant en question l’analyse du suivi de la sensibilité des sésamies à la toxine Cry1Ab, et suggérant un possible développement de résistance dans les populations du nord-est de la péninsule Ibérique. Par ailleurs, le CS du HCB identifie encore certaines faiblesses et limites méthodologiques concernant la surveillance de la résistance et la mise en oeuvre des zones refuges. Le HCB estime notamment que l’utilisation d’une dose diagnostic présente certaines limites pour la détection précoce de l’évolution de la résistance, et recommande une méthode alternative de type F2 screen permettant de déterminer la fréquence des allèles de résistance au sein d’une population de ravageurs cibles. Enfin, le HCB demande à obtenir les données brutes des différents essais biologiques pour évaluer la qualité des données et de leur analyse. Concernant la surveillance générale, le CS du HCB relève un problème de pertinence méthodologique quant aux questions étudiées, avec des règles de décision arbitraires, des conclusions incorrectement justifiées et un possible biais associé au format d’enquête auprès d’une sélection d’agriculteurs. Enfin, le CS du HCB recommande que le rapport de surveillance considère la présence de téosinte dans des zones de culture du maïs MON 810 en Espagne et les risques potentiels associés à une éventuelle introgression de gènes de maïs MON 810 chez le téosinte.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (. Comité Scientifique Du Haut Conseil Des Biotechnologies) 19 Aug 2020

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02917782
  • [hal-02801204] Comité Scientifique, Paris, le 23 juin 2015 avis en réponse à la saisine du 24 avril 2014 de Messieurs Bernard Accoyer et Jean Bizet suite à la proposition de loi relative à l’interdiction de la mise en culture des variétés de maïs génétiquement modifié sur le territoire français1

    Le Haut Conseil des biotechnologies (HCB) a été saisi le 24 avril 2014 par Monsieur le Député Bernard Accoyer et Monsieur le Sénateur Jean Bizet, en vertu de l’article L.531-3 du code de l’environnement, d’une demande d’expertise scientifique relative à l’exposé des motifs de la proposition de loi du 4 février 2014 visant à interdire la mise en culture des variétés de maïs génétiquement modifié sur le territoire français. Le Comité scientifique (CS)2 du HCB a procédé à l’examen des questions de cette saisine en séance du 28 mai 2015 sous la présidence de Jean-Christophe Pagès.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Claude Bagnis) 05 Jun 2020

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02801204
  • [hal-03354433] Avis en réponse à la saisine HCB – habilitation agents juillet 2019. Paris, le 19 septembre 2019

    [...]

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (. Comité Scientifique Du Haut Conseil Des Biotechnologies) 25 Sep 2021

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-03354433
  • [hal-02790080] Avis en réponse à la saisine HCB - dossier EFSA-GMO-NL-2018-153. Paris, le 24 mai 2019

    [...]

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (. Comité Scientifique Du Haut Conseil Des Biotechnologies) 05 Jun 2020

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02790080
  • [hal-02787191] Avis en réponse à la saisine HCB - dossier 2017-143. Paris, le 15 mai 2018

    [...]

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (. Comité Scientifique Du Haut Conseil Des Biotechnologies) 05 Jun 2020

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02787191
  • [hal-02917630] Avis en réponse à la saisine HCB - dossier C/NL/06/01_001. Paris, le 17 octobre 2018

    Le Haut Conseil des biotechnologies (HCB) a été saisi le 14 août 2018 par les autorités compétentes françaises (le ministère de l’Agriculture et de l’Alimentation) d’une demande d’avis relative au dossier C/NL/06/01_001 de demande de renouvellement d’autorisation de mise sur le marché de la lignée d’oeillets génétiquement modifiés 123.8.12 (identificateur unique FLO- 40689-6) à des fins d’importation et de commercialisation de fleurs coupées. Ce dossier a été déposé par la société Suntory Flowers Limited auprès des autorités compétentes néerlandaises sur le fondement de la directive 2001/18/CE. Conformément à cette directive, la Commission européenne a adressé le rapport d’évaluation des Pays-Bas ainsi que le dossier du pétitionnaire à l’ensemble des Etats membres, qui disposent de 60 jours pour faire des commentaires, demander des informations complémentaires ou émettre des objections à la mise sur le marché. Par cette saisine, les autorités compétentes françaises consultent le HCB dans cette perspective, en amont du vote des Etats membres à la Commission européenne. Le Comité scientifique (CS)2 du HCB a examiné le dossier en séance du 17 octobre 2018 sous la présidence de Jean-Christophe Pagès. Le présent avis a été adopté en séance et publié le 23 octobre 2018.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (. Comité Scientifique Du Haut Conseil Des Biotechnologies) 19 Aug 2020

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02917630
  • [hal-02800022] Avis en réponse à la saisine 150129- saisine HCB -dossier 2014-121 concernant le dossier EFSA-GMO-NL-2014-121

    Le Haut Conseil des biotechnologies (HCB) a été saisi le 4 février 2015 par les autorités compétentes françaises (le ministère de l’Agriculture, de l’Agroalimentaire et de la Forêt) d’une demande d’avis relative à une évaluation du dossier EFSA-GMO-NL-2014-121 portant sur une demande d’autorisation de mise sur le marché du soja génétiquement modifié MON 87751 pour l’importation, la transformation, et l’alimentation humaine et animale. Ce dossier a été déposé par la société Monsanto auprès des autorités compétentes néerlandaises sur le fondement du règlement (CE) n° 1829/2003. Dans le cadre de ce règlement, l’évaluation des dossiers de demande de mise sur le marché est confiée à l’Autorité européenne de sécurité des aliments (EFSA). Les Etats membres disposent de trois mois pour envoyer leurs commentaires à l’EFSA en contribution à l’évaluation du dossier. Dans ce contexte, le HCB est invité à proposer des commentaires à destination de l’EFSA au plus tard le 23 avril 2015. Le Comité scientifique (CS)2 du HCB a procédé à l’examen de ce dossier le 26 mars 2015 sous la présidence de Jean-Christophe Pagès.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Claude Bagnis) 05 Jun 2020

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02800022
  • [hal-02917593] Avis en réponse à la saisine 150519 - dossier C-NL-13-02. Paris, le 7 septembre 2015

    Le Haut Conseil des biotechnologies (HCB) a été saisi le 20 mai 2015 par les autorités compétentes françaises (le ministère de l’Agriculture, de l’Agroalimentaire et de la Forêt) d’une demande d’avis relative au dossier C/NL/13/02 de demande de mise sur le marché de la lignée d’oeillets génétiquement modifiés FLO-40685-1 à des fins d’importation et de commercialisation de fleurs coupées. Ce dossier a été déposé par la société Suntory Holdings Limited auprès des autorités compétentes néerlandaises dans le cadre de la directive 2001/18/CE. Conformément à cette directive, la Commission européenne a adressé le rapport d’évaluation des Pays-Bas ainsi que le dossier du pétitionnaire à l’ensemble des Etats membres. Par cette saisine, les autorités compétentes françaises consultent le HCB au stade ultime de la préparation au vote des Etats membres à la Commission européenne. Le Comité scientifique (CS)2 du HCB a examiné le dossier en séance du 25 juin 2015 sous la présidence de Jean-Christophe Pagès. Le présent avis a été adopté par voie électronique le 7 septembre 2015 et publié le 10 septembre 2015.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (. Comité Scientifique Du Haut Conseil Des Biotechnologies) 19 Aug 2020

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02917593
  • [hal-02791061] EFSA-GMO-DE-2017-141 1

    [...]

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Frédérique Angevin) 05 Jun 2020

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02791061
  • [hal-02787185] Avis en réponse à la saisine HCB - dossier EFSA-GMO-RX009. Paris, le 4 juin 2018

    [...]

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (. Comité Scientifique Du Haut Conseil Des Biotechnologies) 05 Jun 2020

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02787185
  • [hal-02917709] Avis en réponse à la saisine HCB – dossier RX-016. Paris, le 21 février 2019

    Le Haut Conseil des biotechnologies (HCB) a été saisi sur le fondement du règlement (CE) n° 1829/2003 d’une demande d’avis relative au dossier EFSA-GMO-RX-016 dans le but de proposer des commentaires à destination de l’EFSA en contribution à l’évaluation européenne du dossier, et d’éclairer les autorités compétentes françaises dans une étape intermédiaire en amont du vote à la Commission européenne. Déposé par la société Syngenta Crop Protection NV/SA, ce dossier est une demande de renouvellement d’autorisation de mise sur le marché du maïs génétiquement modifié Bt11 à des fins d’importation, transformation, et alimentation humaine et animale dans l’Union européenne.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (. Comité Scientifique Du Haut Conseil Des Biotechnologies) 19 Aug 2020

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02917709
  • [hal-02917777] Avis en réponse à la saisine HCB- dossier 2019-159. Paris, le 16 décembre 2019

    Le Haut Conseil des biotechnologies (HCB) a été saisi sur le fondement du règlement (CE) n° 1829/2003 d’une demande d’avis relative au dossier EFSA-GMO-NL-2019-159 dans le but de proposer des commentaires à destination de l’EFSA en contribution à l’évaluation européenne du dossier, et d’éclairer les autorités compétentes françaises dans une étape intermédiaire en amont du vote à la Commission européenne. Déposé par la société Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., ce dossier est une demande d’autorisation de mise sur le marché du maïs génétiquement modifié DP202216 à des fins d’importation, de transformation et d’alimentation humaine et animale dans l’Union européenne.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (. Comité Scientifique Du Haut Conseil Des Biotechnologies) 19 Aug 2020

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02917777
  • [hal-02530998] Les applications antibactériennes des bactériophages

    Dès 1917, dans l’article où il décrit ses premières observations et propose le nom de bactériophage, Félix d’Hérelle rapporte une première utilisation de ces virus pour traiter des infections bactériennes, donnant ainsi naissance à la phagothérapie. Le développement de cette application a montré qu’il était possible de mettre en place des traitements ciblant spécifiquement les bactéries, tels que ceux basés sur l’utilisation d’antibiotiques. Ces derniers, de par leur très grande efficacité et simplicité d’utilisation, ont provoqué le quasi-abandon de la phagothérapie. Aujourd’hui, un nombre croissant de bactéries pathogènes pour l’homme présente des phénotypes de résistance à plusieurs familles d’antibiotiques. Les infections causées par ces bactéries imposent l’utilisation de molécules au spectre d’activité toujours plus large et placent certains patients en situation d’impasse thérapeutique. Cet état de fait a relancé les recherches pour permettre le déploiement de la phagothérapie afin de traiter des patients mais aussi des animaux et des plantes. En fait, les domaines d’applications thérapeutiques des bactériophages s’élargissent au fur et à mesure que les agents antibactériens de nature chimique sont remis en cause, voire interdits. Cette revue revient sur les principes fondamentaux des applications thérapeutiques des bactériophages et expose les données récentes dans les domaines pour lesquels une exploitation commerciale est en cours ou sur le point d’émerger.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (Mireille Ansaldi) 26 May 2020

    https://hal.science/hal-02530998
  • [hal-03354431] Avis en réponse à la saisine HCB - habilitation agents 2019. Paris, le 4 juillet 2019

    [...]

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (. Comité Scientifique Du Haut Conseil Des Biotechnologies) 25 Sep 2021

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-03354431
  • [hal-02917686] Avis en réponse à la saisine du 2 juillet 2020 relative au projet de décret modifiant l’article D.531-2 du code de l'environnement

    Les analyses contenues dans le rapport de surveillance de Bayer Agriculture BVBA ne font apparaître aucun problème majeur associé à la culture de maïs MON 810 en 2018. Toutefois, le CS du HCB identifie encore certaines faiblesses et limites méthodologiques concernant la surveillance de la sensibilité des ravageurs ciblés à la toxine Cry1Ab, remettant en question les conclusions du rapport. Le HCB estime notamment que l’utilisation d’une dose diagnostic présente certaines limites pour la détection précoce de l’évolution de la résistance, tant dans son principe intrinsèque que dans sa mise en oeuvre par Bayer, et recommande une méthode alternative de type F2 screen permettant de déterminer la fréquence des allèles de résistance au sein d’une population de ravageurs cibles. Par ailleurs, le HCB formule des recommandations destinées à renforcer la mise en oeuvre des zones refuges pour prévenir ou retarder le développement de résistance à la toxine Cry1Ab chez les ravageurs ciblés. Concernant la surveillance générale, le CS du HCB relève un problème de pertinence méthodologique quant aux questions étudiées, avec des règles de décision arbitraires, des conclusions incorrectement justifiées et un possible biais associé au format d’enquête auprès du panel d’agriculteurs qui ont accepté de répondre au questionnaire. Enfin, le CS du HCB recommande que le rapport de surveillance considère la présence de téosinte dans des zones de culture du maïs MON 810 en Espagne et les risques potentiels associés à une éventuelle introgression de gènes de maïs MON 810 chez le téosinte.

    ano.nymous@ccsd.cnrs.fr.invalid (. Comité Scientifique Du Haut Conseil Des Biotechnologies) 19 Aug 2020

    https://hal.inrae.fr/hal-02917686

Contact

micalis@inra.fr

Modification date : 26 January 2024 | Publication date : 12 April 2019 | Redactor : RB