Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018


Home page


Pole « Bacterial Adaptation and Pathogenesis »

Microorganisms contribute to and interact with their environment. The microbial state and balance in a complex environment depends on, and varies with the conditions. As such, outgrowth of certain subpopulations is influenced by inter-organism competition or synergies that are established. Changes in the environment (e.g., in nutrient, metabolite and oxygen availability, or in temperature) can provoke radical changes in the expression, genetic stability, and survival of a population.

Environmental changes can cause radical reprogramming in microbial expression and survival. For example, under stress or in the absence of cooperative microbes, an ordinarily harmless microbe can change its expression and may attempt to weaken or destroy its host. Microbial reprogramming in this way also provokes changes in the host defense system. The dissection of these interactions and events is central to the objectives of the “Bacterial Adaptation and Pathogenesis ” teams.

Our projects seek to understand the cause, and address concrete problems due to opportunist microorganisms, especially those incriminated in nutrition and health. We benefit from teams having a broad and complementary knowledge of different aspects of microbiology. The physical and scientific space created by Micalis and the creation of new INRA teams will be the impetus for closer interactions within the unit, and for a concerted effort in addressing scientific challenges with socioeconomic impact.

Scientific objectives

- Define the factors that facilitate establishment of a microbial population in food  and in animal host (mammals - insects) environments.

- Identify and characterize the reprogramming mechanisms used by microbes in response to their environment, and conversely, examine reprogramming by the host in response to microbial infection.

- Monitor and characterize the factors that lead to the emergence of microbial sub-populations or variants in food reservoirs and in the host mucosa.

The thematic departement "Bacterial Adapation and Pathogenesis" is animated by Romain Briandet.