Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal

Home page


Mutagenesis in single cell and Evolution - MUSE

logo équipe

Marina Elez

Marianne De Paepe

Lydia Robert



Our research in brief

The generation of variation in the DNA sequence of genomes is a prerequisite for adaptation, on which the long-term survival of species depends. These variations occur spontaneously and can also be induced by DNA damage. Previous research relying on bulk population measurements has revealed that multiple cellular mechanisms control their occurrences: replication fidelity, repair efficiency, induction of stress responses. Bulk studies have also unveiled that most of that variability is neutral.

Our group seeks to complement this knowledge by addressing the generation of variation and its consequences directly at the single cell level, under dynamically controllable conditions. To do so, we develop new tools that combine genetics, molecular biology, fluorescent microscopy, optogenetics, microfluidics, analysis software and modelling.

Fist, these tools enable us to study cell-to-cell variability in the processes controlling the generation of variability. We focus in particular on the generation of point mutations arising from replication errors. Second, they allow us to we measure directly and quantitatively the impact of antibiotics on the generation of genetic variability.

Third, we use these tools, along with more classical approaches, to investigate phage – bacteria reciprocal modulation of mutation rate and to determine the factors responsible for the high mutation rate of bacteriophages.


ANR MUMI (2020-2024) Phage and bacteria reciprocal modulation of mutation rate; M. Elez & M. De Paepe

DIM Elicit (36 months; start date jan 2020)  Integrated single-cell level system for investigating mutations and evolution; L. Robert & M. Elez

ANR PRIMAVERA (36 months; start date march 2020) Profiles of Intestinal Membrane Vesicles and Viruses Associated to IBD; M. De Paepe

ANR JCJC (48 months; start date oct 2019) Transient mutators and evolution of antibiotic resistance; L. Robert

Institut Universitaire de France (60 months; start date oct 2019) Directly Measuring Mutation Rates in Single Living Cells​; M. Elez

Emergences Ville de Paris (48 months; start date nov 2018) Directly Measuring Mutation Rates in Single Living Cells​; M. Elez